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Drugs

Marijuana / Cannabis


Drugs
This drug consists of the flowering tops, leaves, stems and seeds of the Cannabis Sativa plant. It grows in KZN and all over the world.
• Short term effects: loss of coordination; distorted sense of time; reddening of the eyes; increased appetite; relaxed muscles; increased heart rate; anxiety.
• Long term effects: prolonged use causes damage to the lungs and the heart, and it can cause psychotic symptoms.

Street Names

Common street names include:
Dagga, Aunt Mary, BC Bud, Chronic, Dope, Gangster, Ganja, Grass, Hash, Herb, Joint, Mary Jane, Mota, Pot, Reefer, Sinsemilla, Skunk, Smoke, Weed, Yerba

How is it used?

Smoked as a cigarette or in pipe or bong
Smoked in blunts (cigar emptied of tobacco and filled with marijuana, and sometimes mixed with additional drugs)
Mixed with food (edibles)
Brewed as tea

Paraphernalia

Bong, Pipe, Roach Clip, Rolling Papers

Tik/Crystal Meth


Drugs
Tik has become a buzzword in drug circles and has become increasingly popular amongst school children and gang culture because of the ease with which street pharmacists make the drug, which causes a high rate of Addiction.
• Short term effects: Anxiety; Heart palpitations; Panic attacks; Sweating; Hallucinations; Aggression; Headache; Cramps.
• Long term effects: Malnutrition; Depression; Meth mouth – rotten and broken teeth caused by poor oral hygiene and constant grinding; Mental disorders – tik psychosis; Insomnia; Seizures and heart attacks that can lead to organ failure, brain damage and coma.

Street Names

“tuk-tuk”, crystal, straws and globes.

How is it used?

Tik is commonly sold as a combination of amphetamines and talcum powder, baking powder, starch, glucose or quinine. These additives can be very poisonous.
Tik is a white powder that is smoked, snorted and injected. Crystal meth comes in crystalline blocks; it is also smoked, snorted and injected.

Paraphernalia

Light bulbs, glass straws.

LSD/ Acid


Drugs
This is a powerful hallucinogen that was very popular in the ’60s. It is usually added to absorbent paper and divided into small decorated squares.
• Short term effects:
• dilated pupils; higher body temperature; sweating; loss of appetite; sleeplessness; dry mouth; and tremors.
• Long term effects: It can lead to severe personality disturbances. Flashbacks occur, which is a sudden intense recurrence of hallucinations several days, months or years after use.

Street Names

Common street names include:
Acid, Blotter Acid, Dots, Mellow Yellow, Window Pane

How is it used?

• Added to absorbent paper such as blotter paper divided into square dosage units
• Tablets or capsules
• Occasionally in liquid form

Inhalants


Drugs
The drug of the street children of South Africa. Glue, petrol, nail polish removers, paint and thinners, lighter fuels and a variety of other household products can be used to “huff”.
• Short term effects: due to the inhalants replacing the oxygen intake while huffing, the heart beats irregularly and rapidly; nosebleeds occur; nausea.
• Long term effects: prolonged use can lead to loss of sense of smell; liver, kidney and lung problems; reduced muscle mass, strength and tone; can lead to permanent brain damage.

Street Names

Common street names include:
• Gluey, Huff, Rush, and Whippets

Appearance

Common household products such as glue, lighter fluid, cleaning fluids, and paint all produce chemical vapors that can be inhaled.

How are they abused?

Although other abused substances can be inhaled, the term “inhalants” is used to describe a variety of substances whose main common characteristic is that they are rarely, if ever, taken by any route other than inhalation.
Inhalants are breathed in through the nose or the mouth in a variety of ways, such as:
• “Sniffing” or “snorting”
• “Bagging” — sniffing or inhaling fumes from substances sprayed or deposited inside a plastic or paper bag
• “Huffing” from an inhalant-soaked rag stuffed in the mouth, or inhaling from balloons filled with nitrous oxide


Mandrax


Drugs
Mandrax
Also referred to as Methaqualone, this substance is highly addictive, and statistics show that SA is the greatest abuser worldwide. It is often mixed with marijuana. This synthetic drug is often sold in tablet form
• Short term effects: depression; drastic weight loss; serious emotional problems; headaches; stomach cramps; insomnia; aggression.
• Long term effects: epilepsy; toxic psychosis; loss of muscle control; rotten teeth.

Street Names

Common street names include:
White Pipe, Buttons, MX, Gholfsticks, Doodies, Lizards, Press outs, Flowers

How is it used?

The Mandrax tablet is usually crushed and mixed with Dagga (Marijuana) and is then smoked in a Dagga pipe or better known as “Bottle neck”. This is also known as the so-called “White pipe”.
In fact, it is the smoking of the “Bottle neck” that causes the distinctive stains on the palm of the hand of a Mandrax user.


Cocaine/Crack


Drugs

Crack is a derivative of cocaine, but cheaper. Crack resembles small irregular whitish stones and gets its name from the sound it makes when smoked. The high lasts for 5-20 minutes. Next to methamphetamine, crack cocaine creates the greatest psychological dependency on the drug.
• Short term effects: short-lived, intense highs followed by intense mood crashes; problems sleeping; problems eating; increased heart rate; muscle spasms; convulsions; feelings of paranoia, anxiety and depression are common when crashing.
• Long term effects: prolonged use can lead to breathing problems; stroke; heart failure; depression; paranoia; psychosis; auditory hallucinations; severe mood disturbances.


Street Names

Common street names include:
Coca, Coke, Crack, Crank, Flake, Rock, Snow, Soda Cot

How is it used?

Snorted
Dissolved in water and injected
Crack cocaine is smoked
Cocaine users usually binge on the drug until they are exhausted or run out of cocaine.

Paraphernalia

Needle, Pipe, Small Spoon, Straw


Heroin


Drugs
An opiate (narcotic) drug processed from morphine and extracted from certain poppy plants. Heroin comes in a white or brownish powder, or a black sticky substance known as “black tar heroin.” Often “cut” with other drugs or substances such as sugar or powdered milk. User is unaware how much actual heroin is being used, creating a likelihood of overdose.
• Short term effects: A “rush” which is a strong increase in euphoric feelings; feelings of being warm and flushed during the “rush.”; heavy sensation in the extremities; reduced sensation of pain; drowsiness; sedation; lethargy.
• Long term effects: prolonged use can lead to decreased dental health marked by damaged teeth and gum swelling; excoriated skin from scratching; severe constipation; increased susceptibility to disease from diminished immune system; weakness and sedation; poor appetite and malnutrition; sleeping problems; decrease in sexual functioning.

Street Names

Common street names include:
Big H, Black Tar, Chiva, Hell Dust, Horse, Negra, Smack, Thunder

How is it used?

Injected, smoked, or sniffed/snorted. High purity heroin is usually snorted or smoked.

Paraphernalia

Needle, Pipe, Small Spoon, Straw


Alcoholism


Drugs
This socially acceptable drug is a depressant which depresses your central nervous system. Approximately 10% of all people who drink regularly become alcoholics. Alcoholics cannot control their drinking behaviour.
• Short term effects: feeling of warmth; flushed skin; impaired judgement; lack of coordination; slurred speech; memory and comprehension loss. Heavy drinking usually leads to a hangover.
• Long term effects: prolonged use leads to liver damage and increased risk of heart disease.

Addiction

There are two types of alcohol abuse, those who have anti-social and pleasure-seeking tendencies, and those who are anxiety-ridden people who are able to go without drinking for long periods of time but are unable to control themselves once they start.


Nicotine


Drugs
One of the most harmful substances adversely affecting community health. Smoking is highly addictive. Smoking also affects those around you – they become passive.
• Short term effects: coughing; sore throat; nausea and vomiting; mouth sores, blisters and irritation.
• Long term effects: prolonged use can increase the risk of lung disease by 25%; can lead to various cancers.

Addiction

Nicotine is highly addictive.[13][14] An average cigarette yields about 2 mg of absorbed nicotine, and in lesser doses of that order, the substance acts as a stimulant in mammals, while high amounts (50–100 mg) can be harmful.[15][16][17] This stimulant effect is a contributing factor to the addictive properties of tobacco smoking. Nicotine’s addictive nature includes psychoactive effects, drug-reinforced behavior, compulsive use, relapse after abstinence, physical dependence and tolerance.[18]


E-cigarettes


Drugs
E-cigarettes
The main component of e-cigarettes is an e-liquid contained in cartridges. To create an e-liquid, nicotine is extracted from tobacco and mixed with a base (usually propylene glycol), and may also include flavorings, colorings and other chemicals.

Nicotine

Nicotine
Nicotine is an addictive substance, and almost all e-cigarettes contain nicotine. Even some products that claim not to have any nicotine in them may still contain it. For instance, initial FDA lab tests conducted in 2009 found that cartridges labeled as nicotine-free had traceable levels of nicotine. A 2014 study found little consistency in the amount of nicotine delivered by e-cigarettes of the same brand and strength.2 Similarly, another 2014 study found that the amount of nicotine in e-liquid refills is often substantially different from the amount listed on the package.3 Experienced users learn how to use e-cigarettes in a way that increases their exposure to nicotine. Newer e-cigarette devices, especially “tank” styles, with higher voltage also deliver a greater concentration of nicotine. This matters because the more nicotine used, the greater the potential for addiction.

Ingredients

We don’t presently know what is in e-cigarettes. However, in initial lab tests conducted in 2009 the FDA found detectable levels of toxic cancer-causing chemicals, including an ingredient used in anti-freeze, in two leading brands of e-cigarettes and 18 various cartridges. A review of studies found that levels of toxins in e-cigarette aerosol varied considerably within and between brands. A 2014 study found that aerosol from e-cigarettes with a higher voltage level contains more formaldehyde, another carcinogen with the potential to cause cancer. The findings are alarming, and underscores why the American Lung Association called so urgently for FDA oversight of these products.Flavors in e-cigarettes are also a cause for concern. Not only are flavors used to target kids, but they may be harmful on their own. E-cigarette and flavor manufacturers and marketers may suggest that the flavor ingredients used in e-cigarettes are safe.

Secondhand Emissions from E-cigarettes

As public spaces increasingly become smokefree, anecdotal reports show some people are attempting to use e-cigarettes indoors and in public spaces which are smokefree, like bars, restaurants and even public transit.While e-cigarettes do not contain smoke, they do expose others to secondhand emissions. Two studies have found formaldehyde, benzene and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (all carcinogens) coming from those secondhand emissions. Other studies have shown that chemicals in the emissions contain formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and other potential toxins.

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